Japanese cinema: a brief history of films from the origins to the 2000s

Japanese cinema is among the most important cultural industries; it is the fourth largest market in terms of the number of films produced. Tokyo Story (1953) ranked third in the most important films of all time. The largest Japanese film studio is called Toho. The annual Japan Academy Film Prize hosted by the Nippon Academy is considered the Japanese equivalent of the Academy Awards.

Japanese silent cinema

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The kinetoscope, marketed by Thomas Edison in the United States in 1894, was first brought to Japan in November 1896. Lumière’s cameramen were the very first to make films in Japan. The very first Japanese film was shot in late 1897 in Tokyo. In 1898 some ghost shorts were made. Tsunekichi Shibata made a series of films with 2 famous stars playing a scene from a popular kabuki comedy.

At the birth of cinemas in Japan, there were the benshi, writers who sat next to the screen and told in words the silent moving images. The Benshi could be accompanied by music like the mythical films in Western cinemas. In 1908, Shōzō Makino, the pioneering director of Japanese cinema, began his important profession with Honnōji gassen, produced for Yokota Shōkai. 

Onoe became the first Japanese film star, appearing in over 1,000 films, mainly short films, between 1909 and 1926. The first Japanese film production studio was created in 1909 by the Yoshizawa Shōten company in Tokyo. Many early film critics had negative judgments on the work of studios like Nikkatsu and Tenkatsu, judging their films too theatrical. not to use what were thought to be more cinematic methods of telling stories, relying rather on the benshi. 

Japanese Cinema 1920s

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Japanese films were more successful in Japan in the mid-1920s than foreign films, in part buoyed by the appeal of movie stars. Directors like Daisuke Itō and Masahiro Makino have made samurai films such as A Diary of Chuji’s Travels and Roningai which included provocative anti-heroes in fast-paced battle scenes that were both industrial hits and seriously notorious. Some stars, such as Tsumasaburo Bando, Kanjūrō ​​Arashi, Chiezō Kataoka, Takako Irie and Utaemon Ichikawa, have been motivated by Makino Film Productions and have formed their own independent production in businesses of which directors such as Hiroshi Inagaki, Mansaku Itami and Sadao Yamanaka have developed their skills.

With the rise of left-wing political movements and trade unions in the late 1920s,were so-called left-wing filmsborn. In contrast to commercial products. The Marxist Proletarian Film League of Japan (Prokino) made works in smaller sizes (such as 9.5mm and 16mm), with more extreme intent. Left-wing propaganda films underwent serious censorship in the 1930s, and Prokino members were jailed and the movement crushed.

A later variation of The Captain’s Daughter was among the very first sound films. He used the Mina Talkie System. The Japanese film market split into 2 groups; one kept the Mina Talkie System, while the other used the Eastphone Talkie System used to make Tojo Masaki’s films. The 1923 earthquake, the Battle of Tokyo during World War II, and the natural results of Japan’s weather and humidity on unstable, combustible nitrate films actually led to a terrible lack of lasting films from this period.

Japanese Cinema of the 1930s

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Unlike the West, silent films were still produced in Japan until the 1930s; as late as 1938, a third of Japanese films were silent. An Inn in Tokyo by Yasujirō Ozu (1935), a precursor of neorealism, was a silent film, and was one of the very first Japanese films to hit theaters in the United States; Kenji Mizoguchi’s The Sisters of the Gion (Gion no shimai, 1936); Elegy of Osaka (1936); and The Story of the Last Chrysanthemums (1939); and Humanity and Paper Balloons by Sadao Yamanaka (1937).

Film critics have shared this vigor, with many film magazines such as Kinema Junpo and newspapers publishing in-depth conversations. A cultured “impressionist” critique pursued by critics like Tadashi Iijima, Fuyuhiko Kitagawa and Matsuo Kishi was dominant, yet opposed by left-wing critics like Akira Iwasaki and Genjū Sasa who sought an ideological revision of the films.

The 1930s saw a greater participation of the federal government in cinema which took greater authority on the film market, in 1939. The government motivated certain types of cinema, producing propaganda films and promoting documentaries, cultural films, made by directors like Fumio Kamei. Theorists of cinema as Taihei Imamura and Heiichi Sugiyama promoted the documentary and realistic drama, while directors such as Hiroshi Shimizu and Tomotaka Tasaka produced fiction films.

Japanese cinema of the 1940s

akira-kurosawa

Since the Second World War and the economic crisis, unemployment has come to be prevalent in Japan and the film market has suffered. Throughout this period, when Japan was expanding its empire, the Japanese federal government saw cinema as a propaganda tool to reveal the splendor and invincibility of the Empire of Japan. Therefore, many films from this period portray militaristic and patriotic styles. 

In 1942, Kajiro Yamamoto’s film War at Sea from Hawaii to Malaysia represented the attack on Pearl Harbor; the film used unique results directed by Eiji Tsuburaya, consisting of a miniature design of Pearl Harbor itself. Akira Kurosawa made his first action film with Sugata Sanshiro in 1943.

The first film released after the war was Yasushi Sasaki’s Soyokaze from 1945. Onlist of production restrictions the CIE’s David Condein 1945, nationalism, massacre, patriotism and suicide, violent and merciless films, and so on, ended up being banned products, making historical dramas substantially difficult to produce. As a result, the stars who actually used historical drama have shifted to modern drama: Chiezō Kataoka’s “Bannai Tarao” (1946), Tsumasaburō Bandō’s “Torn Drum (1949), Hiroshi Inagaki’s” The Child Holding Hands and ” King) by Daisuke Itō. 

The duration after the American occupation caused an increase in variety in the cinematic circulation thanks to the increased production and appeal of the film studios of Toho, Daiei, Shochiku, Nikkatsu and Toei. the 4 excellent artists of Japanese cinema: Masaki Kobayashi, Akira Kurosawa, Kenji Mizoguchi and Yasujirō Ozu. The very first collaborations between Akira Kurosawa and star Toshiro Mifune were Drunken Angel in 1948 and Stray Dog in 1949. Yasujirō Ozu directed the successful film Late Spring in 1949.

Japanese cinema in the 1950s

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The 1950s began with Akira Kurosawa’s Rashomon (1950), Golden Lion at the Venice Film Festival in 1951 and Oscar for best strange film I was in 1952, and they mark the entry of Japanese cinema on the world stage. Famous star Toshiro Mifune also appears. In 1953 Entotsu no mieru basho by Heinosuke Gosho entered competition at the 3rd Berlin International Film Festival.

The 1950s are commonly thought of as the golden age of Japanese cinema. 3 Japanese films of these years (Rashomon, Seven Samurai and Tokyo Story) appeared in the top 10 polls of critics and directors of Sight & Sound for the best films of all time in 2002. They also appeared in the polls of 2012, with Tokyo Story ( 1953) which surpasses Citizen Kane at the top of the rankings.

War films then began to be produced. “Listen to the Voices of the Sea” by Hideo Sekigawa (1950), “Himeyuri no Tô – Tower of the Lilies” by Tadashi Imai (1953), “Twenty-Four Eyes” by Keisuke Kinoshita (1954), ” ” The Burmese Harp “by Kon Ichikawa (1956), and other works destined for the terrible experience of war, one after another, ended up having a great social impact. Other nostalgic films such as Battleship Yamato (1953) and Eagle of the Pacific (1953) they were produced in the same way mass.

Rentaro Mikuni, a Japanese movie star has appeared in over 150 films since it launched on the big screen in 1951, and has won 3 Academy Awards for Best Actor and more than 7 nominations. The first Japanese film in color was Carmen Comes Home directed by Keisuke Kinoshita and launched in 1951. Gate of Hell, a 1953 film by Teinosuke Kinugasa, was the very first film to use Eastmancolor film. Gate of Hell was the first color film and the first Japanese film to be dist awarded outside Japan, earning an Academy Award in 1954 for Best Sanzo Wada Costumes and an Honorary Award for Best Foreign Language Film. AND it also won the Palme d’Or at the Cannes Film Festival, the first Japanese film to win the award.

In 1954, another Kurosawa film, Ikiru, was in competition at the 4th Berlin International Film Festival. The protagonist, Watanabe (Takashi Shimura), works as an accountant in a Tokyo office. He discovers he has stomach cancer that has metastasized to the liver. After the diagnosis, Watanabe decides to abandon his life of mediocre contentment and focus on living his last days with dignity and meaning.

In 1955, Hiroshi Inagaki won an Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film for Part I of his Samurai trilogy and in 1958 he won the Golden Lion at the Venice Film Festival for Rickshaw Man. Kon Ichikawa directed 2 dramas antiwar: The Burmese Harp (1956), which was chosen for Best Foreign Language Film at the Academy Awards, and Fires On The Plain (1959), along with Enjo (1958).

Mizoguchi won the Silver Bear at the Venice Film Festival for Ugetsu. Mizoguchi’s films mainly deal with the disasters caused to women by Japanese society. Ugetsu tells the story of a samurai who leaves his family to seek wealth and is seduced by a woman from an ancient noble family, neglects his wife and falls prey to greed and power. Ugetsu is a Japanese word meaning “illusion” or “deceptive image”

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Godzilla 

Godzilla

Modified for its Western release, Godzilla ended up being a worldwide icon of Japan and spawned a whole sub-genre of kaiju movies, as well as the longest-running film franchise. of history. Godzilla is a Japanese monster known for its destructive power. Godzilla’s name comes from the Japanese words “gojira” which translates to “whale” and “gorilla”. Godzilla is a giant monster that first appeared in the 1954 film that emits powerful radioactive emissions and has the ability to emit atomic breath from its mouth. The first Godzilla film was created as a scare tactic for people living near the French Communist nuclear test site in the Pacific Ocean. This giant monster became popular with Japanese audiences and was soon featured in 28 Japanese films produced between 1954 and 1975.

60’s

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Toshiro Mifune was at the center of many of Kurosawa’s films. The number of films produced peaked in the 1960s. Yasujirō Ozu made his last film, An Autumn Afternoon, in 1962. Mikio Naruse directed When a Woman Climb the Stairs in 1960; his latest film was 1967 Scattered Clouds.

Kon Ichikawa recounted the watershed of the 1964 Olympics in his three-hour documentary Tokyo Olympiad (1965). Director Seijun Suzuki was fired from production company Nikkatsu for “makingmake films thatno sense and make no money” after his surrealist yakuza underworld film Branded to Kill (1967).

The 1960s were the peak years of the Japanese New Wave movement , which began in the 1950s and continued into the early 1970s. Cruel Story of Youth, Night and Fog in Japan and Oshima’s Death By Hanging, along with Shindo’s Onibaba, Hani’s Kanojo to kare and Imamura’s The Insect Woman, ended up being some of the best-known examples of Japanese New Wave cinema. . 

Documentary has played an essential function in the New Wave, as directors such as Hani, Kazuo Kuroki, Toshio Matsumoto and Hiroshi Teshigahara have gone from documentary to fiction, while directors such as Oshima and Imamura have also made documentaries.

Teshigahara won the Special Jury Prize at the Cannes Film Festival for Woman in the Dunes (1964) and was chosen for the Oscar for Best Director and Best Foreign Film. Masaki Kobayashi with Kwaidan (1965) was also selected for the special jury prize at the Cannes Film Festival. 

70’s

The film industry has made films in many ways, such as Kadokawa Pictures’ larger budget films, or made up of violent or explicitly sexual material and language that could not be programmed on TV. The result was that the pink cinema market ended up being the springboard for numerous young independent directors.

Toshiya Fujita realized the revenge film Lady Snowblood in 1973. In that year, Yoshishige Yoshida made the film Coup, a portrait of Kita Ikki, the leader of the coup Japanese state in 1936. The film had a great critical response in Japan.

Kinji Fukasaku finished the impressive yakuza series Battles Without Honor and Humanity film. Yoji Yamada presented the Tora-San commercial series, directing other films as well, including the popular The Yellow Handkerchief, which won the very first Japan Academy Prize for Best Picture in 1978. 

80’s

Japan’s film industry was successful in the 80s. The decade saw many high-budget action films that became popular with audiences around the world. Several Japanese directors have become famous for their work. One of them was Kinji Fukasaku, director of Battle Royale and Battle Royale II: Requiem, two hilarious and utterly engaging manga-style films about the battle for survival. Another was Nagisa Oshima, who directed Merry Christmas Mr. Lawrence and In the Realm of the Senses. Oshima was known for using his films to criticize society, politics and culture. He spent six years as an assistant director at Shochiku studios, working with directors including Yasujiro Ozu and Mikio Naruse.

90’s

takeshi-kitano

Japanese films of the 90s introduced new concepts to the world such as anime and manga. The anime has become popular in the West and has appeal to a broad demographic. Japanese films of the 1990s saw an increase in public spending and emerging sectors such as computer games and animation. These two movements have led to films focusing more on the sci-fi and fantasy genre than before.

During the same period, Japanese cinema also experienced a resurgence of new genres and styles. Audiences got a breath of fresh air when new movies were released that weren’t just a retelling of Hollywood movies. Audiences now had to be ready to see films that combined horror with comedy, family drama with science fiction. 

Led by directors such as Takashi Miike, Hideo Nakata and Kiyoshi Kurosawa, the 1990s saw an increase in the amount of Asian horror films. The 1990s also saw an increase in the number of independent Japanese directors who took risks with their films. Kiyoshi Kurosawa: Kurosawa is known for his dark humor and his style in both directing and writing. Masayuki Suo: Suo is known for his stylistic storytelling which is often reflected in people’s memories of their childhood. Tetsuya Nakashima: Nakashima is known for its suspenseful storytelling, which often involves children. 

2000’s

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In recent years, there has been a revival of Japanese cinema led by Hayao Miyazaki, considered one of the most successful directors in history. The number of films made in Japan has increased since 2000 and this trend seems to continue even today with famous directors such as Naomi Kawase and Hirokazu Koreeda winning awards at festivals such as Cannes or the Venice Film Festival respectively.

A recent example of Hollywood’s involvement in Japan is “The Wolverine,” which was filmed in Tokyo and starred Hugh Jackman. Since the release of “The Wolverine” in 2013, Hollywood has steadily increased its investments in Japan. This includes films shot in Tokyo, which support Japanese actors or actresses and collaborate with Japanese studios.

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